What is Postnatal Depression? Signs and Risk Factors

Postnatal depression is estimated to affect 1 in 5 women and is found in all cultural, social and age groups. There are different types of this condition experienced by mothers after birth. There is the ‘Baby Blues’ which usually occurs between the 3rd and 5th day and usually resolve by the 10th day. It is thought to be the response to hormone changes and the stress of giving birth and occurs in up to 70% of women.

  • Postnatal depression has a gradual onset between the 3rd and 9th month.
  • Postpartum Psychosis occurs in approximately 1 in 500 births and is quite rare. It seems to be genetically linked and typically occurs after the first baby. It presents as a manic depressive illness and requires urgent psychiatric treatment.

This condition results in a disturbance of mood, disturbance of thoughts and physiological disturbances. These disturbances and symptoms of postnatal depression will be discussed:

Disturbance of Mood

This includes the experience of a depressed mood, feelings of sadness, hopelessness, worthlessness, failure, shame, guilt, fear, anger and panic. Feelings of fatigue and exhaustion and the loss of sexual desire.

Disturbance of Thoughts

Poor concentration, loss of ability to plan and carry through tasks, poor memory, confused thinking, intrusive thoughts (eg thoughts of serious illness or death of self, baby or partner).

Physiological disturbance

The mother may experience sleep disorder such as difficulty falling asleep, early morning waking, always fatigued and exhausted. She may also experience stress symptoms such as panic attacks, tightness in the chest and stomach. Appetite changes, either a loss of appetite or overeating may be experienced.

Risk Factors

A number of factors are thought to contribute to postnatal mood disorders. Current research indicates that psychological, biochemical and environmental or social factors affect the onset of postnatal depression.

There are a number of factors that predispose a woman to this condition. One of the most significant risk factors is having a previous psychiatric illness or emotional problems. Women who have previously had depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder are at a greater risk.

Obstetric and gynecological problems impact a mother’s physical health and can impact her emotional well being. This can include caesarean birth, permittivity, previous miscarriage, previous termination of pregnancy, neonatal death, and previous history of infertility.

If the baby or mother has problems post birth this can also increase the possibility of postnatal depression. Problems such as the baby experiencing gastric reflux, excessive crying, breastfeeding problems, sleep deprivation, low iron levels.

In addition environmental and relationship factors can impact a mother and predispose her to postnatal depression. Lack of support from ones partner or own mother can be significant. This may be through death, separation or conflict in the relationship. Furthermore a mother’s isolation from extended family or friendship network can impact postnatal depression. This can be significant particularly for first time mothers who may shift from a busy life in full time work to being isolated at home. Women who would describe themselves as high achievers or perfectionists are at greater risk of postnatal depression as are women with anxious personalities. Finally if the woman experiences multiple stressors in her past or present life these may contribute to the onset of postnatal depression.

Dental Hygienist: A Challenging Career

The duty of a dental hygienist is to help the dentist during dental surgery and other oral treatments. He is the in charge of advising and helping the patient in learning appropriate way of dental hygiene and cleaning the teeth before any kind of surgery or examination. He also cleans and polishes the teeth of the patients. Some office maintenance work is also done by a dental hygienist like updating patient database and allotting the medicine to the patients. The main duties of a dental hygienist have been enlisted below:

• Help the dentist during operations and other dental procedures.
• Help the patients in taking preparation before surgery and examinations.
• Scaling and polishing the teeth of the patient.
• Use inventory system to manage patient’s history.
• Take X-ray of the patient’s teeth.
• Wash mouth of the patient while filling.
• Make filling material.
• Prepare prosthetics for braces and dentures.
• Function as the in charge of the office and lab.
• Fine-tune the completed filling.
• Teach patient about oral healthcare.

A dental health care team is incomplete without a hygienist. They assist dentists in their routine checkup and other dental services offered to the patients. In order to work as a dental hygienist you need to attend a course in any recognized school which lasts for 2 years. For private practice you should have an associate degree. You need to have at least 2 years of clinical training. However, if you wish to be a researcher or teacher in the field of dental hygienist, you need to undergo further education. You should have both the Bachelor and Master degree to get these positions. You need to work harder to get these degrees, for example, it takes at least six years to complete a Bachelor degree and in some cases you will need to take certification examination to get qualified.

The career as a dental hygienist is both exciting and challenging. You should be focused and patient to have result. With proper practice and experience you can be an icon in this field. Now-a-days people are being more careful about the dental health. They now understand that dental health and physical health are inter-related. As a result the demand of the dentists is increasing rapidly and simultaneously the job opportunities of the dental hygienists are also increasing to help the dentists in their daily tasks. If you have a certificate as a dental hygienist, finding a job won’t be a problem for you. Even you will have multiple job offers to choose from. Whatsoever the job is, try to work hard and be honest in your occupation. If you serve your patients well, your goodwill will increase and more and more patients will come to you to take treatment.

8 Tips to Help Your Child From Stuttering

Parents are the frontline when it comes to giving the best possible care to the child. We give them clothes, food and shelter. But what if the child has a disorder like stuttering? Well, that love continues and you can also do it by knowing these tips.

1. Parents have to provide a supportive environment for the child. This means being patient with them and giving them a proper forum to speak their minds even if they do not say the words correctly. That may be hard given that we can talk normally but don’t you think you also had that problem while you were growing up?

2. You also have to create an environment where everyone takes turn when they are speaking. This will let them know that when someone is talking, they are quiet and when it is their turn, the other party will also give them the same courtesy.

3. When you speak to your child, only use short sentences and vocabulary that is appropriate to their age. If you have questions, let him or her finish answering one first before you ask another. This helps eliminate any frustration in trying to imitate complex phrases, sentences or words.

4. The most important tip is to be able to listen so you know the message they are trying to convey. How you respond to your child when they say something should be the same as how you will talk to a regular kid so that the child will not feel different. Eventually they will know notice that they speak differently from others but for now, just let them be.

5. As a parent, you are very understanding with what your child is going through but things are different when you leave the home especially in school because the kids who don’t know any better and they will laugh. As much as possible, don’t let your child speak in public or perform in front of others just yet. But if they want to, let them.

6. Your child’s siblings may just be as bad as some of the kids in school. When this happens, intervene immediately so this does not happen. Instead of making fun of the deficiency, everyone in the family must pull together and support each other.

7. A lot of people get the help of a speech language pathologist to help them deal with stuttering. There are various techniques that are used and with your help, you will be able to set realistic goals given that there is no known cure yet for this disorder.

8. Lastly, love your child for what he or she is. It is no one’s fault that the child is stuttering. In fact, scientists until now do not know yet what causes it even if there is evidence to suggest that it is genetic or something neurological that the child was born with. You just have to accept the fact that there is this problem and you are okay with it.

You can overcome stuttering by following these 8 simple tips. Will it be easy? The answer is no but as long as you provide the right environment, show a lot of love and support as well seek the proper help, the situation could get better as your child grows older.

Colon Cancer

Colon cancer, also called colorectal cancer involves cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and the appendix. It is the third most common cancer in the world. Often, this type of cancer starts with mushroom-like growths in the colon called adenomatous polyps. Removal of these polyps during colonoscopy therefore reduces the subsequent risk of the condition. The risk of colon cancer, like is the case with other types of cancer increases with age and often it occurs in people who are in their 60s or 70s.

Women who have suffered from breast, uterus or ovarian cancer have a higher risk of developing colon cancer. Heredity is also another cause of this type of cancer. Individuals who have close relatives who have suffered from the disease before the age of 55 are at a higher risk of developing the disease. Smokers are also at a high risk of developing the disease as compared to non-smokers.

Studies have showed that people who consume mostly red meat and less fresh fruit, vegetables, fish and poultry have an increased risk of developing the disease. Physical activity reduces the risk of contracting this type of cancer and therefore regular exercise is recommended. People in industrialized countries are at a relatively high risk of suffering from colon cancer than those in developing countries.

Colon cancer takes sometime to develop and even sometimes may take years. Early diagnosis therefore improves the chances of curing it. Screening for this disease can be done through colonoscopy, digital rectal exam and through fecal occult blood where a test on the blood in the stool is done.